Kickstart: Honoring Dennis Tully in the expansion he planned but never saw completed

MTD Micro Molding, a medical molder and mold maker specializing in extremely small parts, has officially opened its expansion, and it picked a perfect person to honor.At a May 27 dedication ceremony in Charlton, Mass., MTD Executive Vice President Gary Hulecki unveiled a cornerstone plaque honoring Dennis Tully, MTD’s late president and visionary leader who before his unexpected passing in 2019.Tully was 58 when he died of a heart attack in 2019, just weeks before the family company was named Plastics News’ Processor of the Year. He was named to the Plastics Hall of Fame in 2020.”[Dennis] would never tell you what to do or how to do something, but you could always count on him to help you frame the problem and think through the issues you needed to consider before proceeding,” Hulecki said.The exterior was completed in late 2020 and the interior was completed this year.In addition to increased production space, MTD’s expansion provides more personal space for employees and a gym, so “employees can better maintain their well-being,” the company said.The work “allowed us to reach this major milestone for the company and for Dennis’ legacy,” MTD owner Darlene Tully said. We know about plastics used in car safety systems to protect passengers. Now auto dealers in hail-prone regions are also using plastics to help prevent damage before the cars even leave their lots.Our sister paper Automotive News has a story about a Colorado auto dealer that invested in a overhead canopy to cover the cars in its lots after seeing $200,000 in damages to cars in 2018, with an especially bad run of weather in June.”That month we purchased three new dealerships on the east side of Denver, and within a 10-day period they were hit with hail three times,” Michael Dunlap, vice president of business development at Schomp Automotive Group, told AN. “We had cars that were damaged, repaired, put back onto the front line and then damaged again.”Langley, British Colombia-based company WeatherSolve offers the barriers made of nylon, polyethylene and other plastics that can be deployed during bad weather.Unlike hard canopies or tents, customers can easily scout out cars in the lot. And once hail season subsides, the dealerships can roll up the canopies and store them. Of course hail storms are just one element of the rapidly increasing cost of doing business during turbulent weather.We all know the disruptions from Hurricane Laura in August or the extreme cold in Texas this year, but a new report from the National Centers for Environmental Information says there were a record-breaking 22 weather and climate disaster events in 2020, up from in 16 in 2017 and 2011.And the group notes that severe weather is causing increasingly expensive impacts on the supply chain.And the very real threat of more frequent and severe storms will require transport and supply chain managers to take lessons learned from past disasters and incorporate them into future risk and contingency plans., told Supply Chain Drive supply chain professionals need to take the long-term view of risk as they expand networks or routes into areas prone to storms.”The severe weather events may be inevitable, but the damage doesn’t have to be,” Klosowski said. Do you have an opinion about this story? Do you have some thoughts you’d like to share with our readers? Plastics News would love to hear from you. Email your letter to Editor at Staying current is easy with Plastics News delivered straight to your inbox, free of charge. Subscribe to Plastics News Plastics News covers the business of the global plastics industry. We report news, gather data and deliver timely information that provides our readers with a competitive advantage.Customer Service:

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The Necessity and Feasibility of Maintenance and Reformation of CNC Machine Tools

my country has been using cnc machine tools on a large scale since the early 1980s. There are many factors that require maintenance and CNC upgrading of existing machine tools:

 

1. In many industries, these numerical control equipment are in key jobs. Some machine tools are running for a long time or even overloaded. At the same time, they lack serious repair and maintenance, causing serious machine tool wear and loss of precision;

 

2. Due to changes in the user and product structure, or due to insufficient technical strength, it has been idle for a long time, and some cnc machine tools are found to be unusable when they need to be used;

 

3. Due to the needs of new product manufacturing, the performance of the original CNC machine tools can no longer meet the requirements of use, and it is urgent to update and upgrade; at the same time, due to the rapid development of computer technology, the product update of CNC systems and drive systems is speeding up, and CNC systems need to be updated.

 

This is a large stock of equipment assets, repaired to become wealth. As long as the main technical difficulties are identified and the key technical problems are solved, the largest stock of assets can be activated with the smallest investment, and the largest economic and social benefits can be achieved. Especially for the imported CNC machine tools, hundreds of thousands to tens of millions of dollars have been spent. If the failure cannot be repaired and eliminated in time, it will cause greater economic losses. Compared with the purchase of new machine tools, the maintenance and upgrading of CNC machine tools can achieve the same use effect by only spending less than 30% of the cost of purchasing the same new machine tool. Therefore, the CNC repair and reconstruction of machine tools has many advantages.

 

The goal of maintenance and transformation of CNC machine tools is mainly to diagnose and restore the faulty parts of the machine tool; it is also possible to add a numerical control system to an ordinary machine tool and transform it into an NC machine tool or CNC machine tool; it can also carry out mechanical and electrical part transformation to improve The accuracy, efficiency or degree of automation of the machine tool; technical update or technological innovation can also be carried out on the basis of the original performance, to improve the level and efficiency of the equipment in a timely manner, improve the quality and grade of the equipment, and transform the old machine tool into a machine tool of today’s level.

 

Technical feasibility analysis and economic feasibility analysis should be carried out in the first place for the implementation of CNC machine tool maintenance and transformation. It is necessary to analyze the value of the transformation from the position and importance of the machine tool in the production of the unit; estimate from the input-output rate of the machine tool, whether the investment can be recovered quickly and whether it can quickly produce better benefits; after the machine tool is transformed Improve the accuracy of the machine tool, increase the function, whether it can improve the level of the unit’s products, or is conducive to the development of new products, so as to obtain additional benefits. At the same time, preparations for technical solutions must be carried out.

 

1. Mechanical and hydraulic system

 

Check the accuracy of the current machine tool, the condition of the mechanical transmission chain, the condition of the ball screw and the guide rail, and whether there are major failures, etc., to determine the machine tool maintenance and transformation plan (overhaul or project repair). If a non-CNC machine tool is to be changed to a CNC machine tool, the feasibility of mechanical modification must be considered first, the most important thing is the form of the guide rail and the installation of the ball screw, and then whether the transmission gap and transmission stiffness of the mechanical transmission mechanism meet the requirements of the CNC machine tool. Claim.

 

2. Electrical system

 

Select the CNC system according to the state of the machine tool and process requirements. On the basis of detailed understanding of the characteristics of the currently used CNC systems, the performance-price ratio and the functional requirements of the machine tool, choose a more suitable CNC system and determine whether to replace the drive system, so that it can meet all the functions of the machine tool. Request without raising the standard.

 

For the peripheral circuit, there are two options for transformation: “interface type transformation”, that is, the peripheral relay circuit is reserved, and only the NC and PLC are transformed. The new PLC does not participate in the control of the peripheral circuit, and only processes the command signals required by the NC. This scheme has a small amount of transformation design and debugging. The other is “complete transformation”. When the relay logic is more complicated, the failure rate is high, and the logic diagram is clear, the PLC of the new NC can be used to transform all the peripheral circuits, which simplifies the peripheral circuits and makes reasonable use of them. It has the control ability of PLC. This scheme can simplify the hardware circuit and improve reliability.

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The Design Standards For Electronic Enclosures

The Design Standards For Electronic Enclosures


The panel design of the industrial chassis is an important part of the chassis design. The panel design needs to meet the standards of the chassis design. The size of the panel is determined after the chassis type and size are determined. The selection and layout of various operating and display devices on the panel should be based on the requirements of the electrical schematic diagram, ergonomics, and Comprehensive consideration of styling, ventilation and other factors.

The Design Standards For Electronic Enclosures

The Design Standards For Electronic Enclosures. -PTJ CNC MACHINING Shop

1. Ensure the realization of product technical indicators

In the process of chassis design, it is necessary to consider the electromagnetic interference and thermal effects between the internal components and components of the chassis to improve the stability of electrical performance; attention must be paid to the strength and rigidity of the chassis to avoid deformation, resulting in poor electrical contact, Doors and connectors are stuck, or even damaged after vibration; corresponding measures must be taken according to the actual working environment and conditions of use to improve the reliability and service life of the equipment, and to ensure the realization of product technical indicators.

2. Facilitate the operation, use, installation and maintenance of the equipment

In order to operate and use the equipment effectively, the structural design of the chassis must conform to the psychological and physiological characteristics of people. At the same time, it is also required to have a simple structure and easy assembly and disassembly. The controller and display device on the panel must be reasonably selected and arranged, and the personal safety of the operator must be considered.

3. Good structure and craftsmanship

The structure and the craft are closely related. Different structures have different crafts, and the quality of the chassis structure design must be guaranteed by good craftsmanship measures. Therefore, the designer must consider its structure and manufacturability in combination with the actual production.

4. Modular and standardized design

Standardization is an important technical and economic policy and management measure of the country. It plays an important role in improving product quality and productivity, ease of use and maintenance, strengthening enterprise management, and reducing production costs. In the design of the chassis structure, it is necessary to minimize the number of special parts and components, increase the number of general-purpose parts, and use standardized and standardized parts, components and size series as much as possible (as far as possible, use standard library and national standard parts).

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The Design Standards For Electronic EnclosuresPTJ CNC shop produces parts with excellent mechanical properties, accuracy and repeatability from metal and plastic. 5 axis CNC milling available.Machining high-temperature alloy range inclouding inconel machining,monel machining,Geek Ascology machining,Carp 49 machining,Hastelloy machining,Nitronic-60 machining,Hymu 80 machining,Tool Steel machining,metal enclosur etc.,. Ideal for aerospace applications.CNC machining produces parts with excellent mechanical properties, accuracy and repeatability from metal and plastic. 3-axis & 5-axis CNC milling available.We will strategize with you to provide the most cost-effective services to help you reach your target,Welcome to Contact us ( [email protected] ) directly for your new project.

The benefits of laser steel cutting machine co-edge cutting

To improve the cutting efficiency of laser steel Cutting Machine and reduce cutting cost, the efficiency machine tool needs to be fully utilized. Typesetting software and laser cutting machine for iron sheet automatic programming software can help us to achieve this goal. The biggest function of the typesetting software is to improve the material utilization rate. The typesetting software arranges as many parts as possible on a board of a given size or arranges the given parts on a board as small as possible.

The typesetting software realizes co-edge cutting through co-edge nesting to achieve the efficiency of the cnc laser cutting machine fiber cutting machine tool. Co-edge cutting is to arrange the parts with long sides as long as possible in the way of long side to long side according to certain rules when optimizing the layout. When generating the cutting command, the common side part of the outer contour of these parts is only cut once . Coedge cutting is an important measure to improve the cutting efficiency and save cutting costs. In actual production, once the plate is cut, thermal deformation and movement will occur, and repeated cutting will affect the quality of the processed section.

The most commonly used cnc laser cutting machine steel cutting machine tool generally only has a laser cutting head, that is, a cutting nozzle. This requires avoiding repeated cutting of the section during the production process. According to the actual cutting process, regardless of the path sequence, the common edge of all parts is only cut once by the nozzle, and no edges are cut repeatedly. This problem of common edge cutting is solved by path planning.

After co-edge cutting is arranged according to certain rules, another problem arises: regular and irregular parts co-edge. The cutting problem after the regular and irregular parts are nested together has always been a concern for users of cnc laser cutting machine for metal. When the regular and irregular parts are on the same side, the cutting process should fully consider meeting the processing quality, processing efficiency and manufacturing cost, and follow the principle of minimum punching point and shortest cutting empty stroke.

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Program Features of CNC Turning Process and Optimization

Program Features of CNC Turning Process and Optimization


The characteristics of CNC turning processing technology are mainly discussed from the aspects of determining the positioning datum of parts processing, the requirements of CNC machining on the blank, the experience of process division, the selection of cutting tools and cutting parameters. For ease of understanding, examples are given in connection with actual processing in all aspects. In addition, it focuses on the optimization methods of numerical control programs, including the use of cycle programs, avoiding dry running of tool paths in the machining process, and applying subroutines. The differences between before and after optimization are compared through examples, showing the superiority of reasonable programs. Combining the actual processing experience on site, it provides a method to eliminate the tool marks and remove the thread burr during processing, and gives the processing procedure.

Program Features of CNC Turning Process and Optimization
Program Features of CNC Turning Process and Optimization

At present, the application of CNC cutting technology has entered a period of unprecedented rapid development and is moving towards high speed and efficiency. How to improve the processing efficiency of CNC machine tools has become a new topic before us. Understand the characteristics of CNC machining, determine a reasonable CNC machining process, and select
Choosing high-efficiency tools and preparing reasonable programs is the key to improving machining efficiency.

1.Features of CNC machining process

There are similarities and differences between the parts processed by CNC machine tools and the parts processed by ordinary machine tools. CNC machine tools are processed in strict accordance with the processing procedures 

  • The workpieces processed are usually more complicated than those processed by ordinary machine tools. Before the CNC machine tool is processed, the motion process of the machine tool, the process of the part, the shape of the tool, the cutting amount and the tool path must be programmed into the program, so the processing plan must be correctly determined before programming 
  • According to practical experience, the CNC machining process has the following characteristics.

1) There is an exact positioning datum. 

During batch processing, in order to improve the processing efficiency, generally after the program is compiled and the first piece trial cut is completed, the program zero point is no longer changed. Therefore, it is required that the position of each part clamped on the machine tool must be determined by the machine tool. The default is the same as the first article position. Therefore, each part must have the same and exact positioning datum on the machine tool [3].For example: for turning short bar parts, this datum is generally on the end face of the chuck or on the steps of the three jaws; for turning slender parts (part of which needs to be clamped in the spindle hole during processing), this datum Generally, it is guaranteed by a step sleeve (see Figure 1); for special parts, it is necessary to find a specific way to clamp according to the shape of the part. In short, it is necessary to ensure that the coordinate of the Z axis of the part on the machine tool is constant during clamping.

2) There are certain requirements for the blank.

According to the characteristics of CNC machining and positioning, CNC machining also has certain requirements on the shape and size of the blank[4]. The margin of each part of the blank should be as consistent as possible, and it is best to keep the deviation within 2mm. In this way, in the CNC machining, not only the number of unnecessary empty passes can be reduced, and the machining efficiency can be improved, but also accidents such as hitting and crashing can be avoided.

3) Divide the process according to the tool.

In addition to following the general process principles, the CNC machining process should also be considered to give full play to the functions of the CNC machine tool used, and the process should be concentrated as much as possible. All processes should be completed as much as possible in one clamping. Because CNC tools play a pivotal role in CNC machining and are the key to high efficiency of CNC machine tools, processes are often divided according to the tools used. For processing the part shown, a total of 5 tools are required, namely, offset cutter, external groove cutter, face groove cutter, external thread cutter and drill bit. When machining, first use the offset cutter to set 111, thread outer diameter 100 and end face The steps (guaranteed size 18) are all processed, and then the tool is changed. This can reduce the number of tool changes, shorten the idle time, improve processing efficiency, and reduce unnecessary positioning errors.

4) The choice of tools and cutting parameters is very important. 

The high efficiency of CNC machine tools depends to a large extent on the tool Only by choosing the right tool can the performance of the CNC machine tool be fully utilized. Nowadays, there are many types of domestic and imported CNC tools. Large tool companies generally indicate the blade brand, suitable materials and cutting parameters on the blade box. First of all, according to the processed parts;Select the type of blade based on the material and processing parts (such as outer circle, thread and face groove, etc.), and then select the specific blade according to rough and finish machining. After the insert is determined, the corresponding cutting parameters can be determined. For example: machining the outer circle of aluminum, the selected insert grade is CCGT120404FN -27, and its cutting parameters a = 1.0 ~ 10.0 mm, f = 0.1 ~ 0.75 mm, v = 100 ~ 300 m / min, then The machine speed n can be obtained from the formula n = 1 0000 v/d. The cutting parameters provided by the tool vendor are a range, from which to select a parameter that is most suitable for use, you also need to;According to the actual machining conditions, the best parameters can only be obtained from practice, so they must be determined through actual cutting tests.

2.Optimization of NC program

When machining parts on ordinary machine tools, the machining process is usually written on the machining process card. The operator processes the parts according to the “program” specified in the process card. The cutting parameters and tool paths are determined by the operator based on experience and regulations. However, when machining parts on a CNC machine tool, all the process and process parameters of the parts to be machined must be programmed in the form of codes and input into the machine tool to realize the machining of the parts. Therefore, the work of programming is very important. If the programming is reasonable, not only high-quality parts can be processed, but also the processing efficiency can be improved.

1) Adopt cycle program

Cycle programs are widely used in the programming of flat end faces, turning outer circles, drilling and boring, etc., which greatly simplifies the program structure, reduces the programming workload, and improves the processing efficiency.

2) Avoid dry running of tool path during machining.

The use of a cycle program in programming can certainly simplify the program, but it is not always good to use it. When the shape of the part has steps and the machining allowance is uneven, in order to avoid idling, the cycle program is generally not used [8]. The shape of the blank has been rough turned, and the 2 steps have a large axial margin. If the cycle program is used, a lot of empty passes will be generated; if the cycle program is not used, the two step faces with a large margin can be turned first according to the incoming material, and then the shape of the car will avoid empty passes and improve the processing efficiency. .

3) Application subroutine.

The application of subroutines in the program can simplify the main program [9], reduce programming workload and improve processing efficiency. Parts of the same series of length and diameter can share a subroutine. For the bottom surface of the inner hole of the part, the following subroutine can be used. The symbol of calling subroutine in the main program is M98PX0YYY, X is the number of subroutine calls, and 0YYY is the subroutine number.

  • G0W -2.
  • G1X0. F0.1
  • G0X114. W2.
  • G0W -2.
  • G〇M99

4) The programming method to eliminate the tool marks.

When compiling a CNC program, you can use the programming method of the tool to take a long slash to eliminate the tool mark. In addition to the above optimization program method, there are some other programming skills, such as the application of a delay program, before a tool number Adding the program number can call the required tool at any time without being affected by the tool number in the program.

5) Deburring the thread.

The thread burr is removed by hand polishing with sandpaper on the general lathe, and the grooving knife can be used to automatically remove the burr through a program on the CNC lathe.

3.Conclusion

To sum up, there are many differences between CNC machining and ordinary machine tool machining. It has its own characteristics of processing technology, and there are many particularities and shortcuts in programming. Only by fully mastering and using them, can we really give full play to the high efficiency of CNC machine tools and make them better serve us.

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What Is Inconel 625

Description Of Inconel 625


Inconel625 is a solid solution strengthened nickel-based deformed superalloy with molybdenum and niobium as the main strengthening elements. It has excellent corrosion resistance and oxidation performance. It has good tensile properties and fatigue properties from low temperature to 980 ℃, and is salt-resistant Stress corrosion in a foggy atmosphere.

What Is Inconel 625

Description Of Inconel 625. -PTJ CNC MACHINING Shop

Therefore, it can be widely used to manufacture aero engine parts, aerospace structural parts and chemical equipment. The alloy has good processing and welding performance, and can supply various plates, bars, pipes, wires, strips and forgings.

Alloy 625 is a corrosion-resistant, oxidation-resistant nickel-based alloy. The excellent strength and toughness of 625 alloy in the low temperature-1093 ° C temperature range is derived from the solid solution effect of the refractory metal colium and molybdenum in the nickel-chromium matrix. The excellent fatigue strength and resistance to stress corrosion cracking of 625 alloy benefit from the chloride ion in the material.


Inconel 625 application

625 alloy is mostly used for manufacturing heat shields, turbine engine air ducts, internal combustion tubes, fuel injection rods, chemical industry equipment and special seawater applications.


Inconel 625 Corrosion resistance

625 alloy can withstand a variety of corrosive environments. In alkaline solutions, sea water, fresh water, neutral salts and air, the material has little corrosion. Nickel and chromium components provide antioxidant capacity. Nickel and molybdenum provide resistance to corrosion by non-oxidizing gases. Molybdenum can effectively prevent pitting and crevice corrosion. The resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking is particularly prominent. At high temperatures, 625 alloy is not prone to flaking or oxidation.

Physical properties
Density: 8.44
Average specific heat: 0.098 btu / lb / ° F

Average thermal expansion coefficient

 What Is Inconel 625

What Is Inconel 625


Inconel 625 Thermal conductivity

What Is Inconel 625


Inconel 625 material is heat treated at 1149 ° C for 1 hour

What Is Inconel 625


Inconel 625 Poisson’s ratio

What Is Inconel 625


Modulus of elasticity (E)

What Is Inconel 625


Modulus of elasticity (dynamic)

What Is Inconel 625


Rigidity modulus (G)

What Is Inconel 625


Inconel 625 Resistance

What Is Inconel 625


Material heat treated at 1149 ° C for 1 hour

What Is Inconel 625

Curie temperature: < -320 ° F
Melting distance: 2350-2460 ° F
 
Magnetic
Magnetic flux (200 Oe): 1.0006Mu


Inconel 625 Creep performance

What Is Inconel 625


Tensile properties at elevated temperature

What Is Inconel 625


Effect of annealing temperature

What Is Inconel 625


Tensile properties at elevated temperature

What Is Inconel 625


Impact test-keyhole notch

What Is Inconel 625


Tensile properties at room temperature

What Is Inconel 625


Tensile strength at room temperature

Hot rolling, low solution annealing, 100 hours at the temperature listed in the table below

What Is Inconel 625


Rotating beam fatigue strength

What Is Inconel 625


Heat treatment

There are three basic heat treatment methods for 625 alloy:
1. High solution annealing: 1093-1204 ° C, air quenching or faster quenching
2. Low solution annealing: 927-1038 ° C, air quenching or faster quenching
3. Stress relief: 899 ° C, air quenching
 
The heat treatment time depends on the number of materials and the thickness of the cross section. The heat treatment time of methods 1 and 2 is usually 1 / 2-1 hour, and the heat treatment time of method 3 is 1-4 hours.
 
When the working temperature is above 816 ° C and the creep resistance is more important, Method 1 is usually used to process the material. Steel mills will also use high solution annealing to make the material soft and easy to cold-roll or cold-draw.
 
Method 2 is the most commonly used heat treatment method. 1038 ° C can optimize the comprehensive performance of tensile strength and cracking strength. At the same time, the ductility and toughness under low temperature environment are also very good.
 
When the working temperature is below 649 ° C, when the requirements on the fatigue resistance, tensile strength, yield strength and hardness of the material are high, Method 3 is recommended for heat treatment. The treated material has very good ductility and toughness in low temperature environment. If dense grains are required, the material will have good fatigue strength, tensile strength and yield strength in the environment below 816 ° C. Sometimes method 3 can also be used.


Thermal processing

The maximum furnace temperature for thermal processing is 1149 ° C. Take care to avoid the accumulation of frictional heat that can cause overheating to exceed 1149 ° C. Alloy 625 will become more rigid below 1010 ° C. If it is below this temperature, the workpiece needs to be reheated. It is recommended to perform uniform forging to avoid mixed crystal structure. The finished forging rate is about 15-20%.


Cold Processing

625 alloy is suitable for a variety of standard cold working methods. After cold working, the workpiece becomes rigid and can be restored to its ductility by annealing.
The impact of cold work
Before cold working, the strip is annealed at 1019 ° C

What Is Inconel 625

Machine performance
It is generally recommended to use low cutting speed, dense tools, heavy equipment, sufficient coolant, and forced feed to process 625 alloy.


Turning of high-speed cutting tools

What Is Inconel 625

The maximum furnace temperature for thermal processing is 1149 ° C. Take care to avoid the accumulation of frictional heat that can cause overheating to exceed 1149 ° C. Alloy 625 will become more rigid below 1010 ° C. If it is below this temperature, the workpiece needs to be reheated. It is recommended to perform uniform forging to avoid mixed crystal structure. The finished forging rate is about 15-20%.


High-speed steel cutting speed

What Is Inconel 625

The angle of the carbide tool is smaller than that of the HSS tool, and the cutting speed is faster.
It is recommended to use sulfur-based cutting fluid. After machining, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the workpiece to avoid bringing surface contaminants into the subsequent heat treatment process.


Welding

Gas welding can be used for welding, tungsten electrode or consumable metal electrode. No post-weld heat treatment is required to maintain corrosion resistance. Before welding, pay attention to clean the welding surface and align the welding seam. The thick welding area adopts U-shaped welding method.

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What Is Inconel 625PTJ CNC shop produces parts with excellent mechanical properties, accuracy and repeatability from metal and plastic. 5 axis CNC milling available.Machining high-temperature alloy range inclouding inconel machining,monel machining,Geek Ascology machining,Carp 49 machining,Hastelloy machining,Nitronic-60 machining,Hymu 80 machining,Tool Steel machining,etc.,. Ideal for aerospace applications.CNC machining produces parts with excellent mechanical properties, accuracy and repeatability from metal and plastic. 3-axis & 5-axis CNC milling available.We will strategize with you to provide the most cost-effective services to help you reach your target,Welcome to Contact us ( [email protected] ) directly for your new project.

The difficulty of manufacturing high-end bearings

The difficulty of manufacturing high-end bearings


The bearing is an indispensable core component in mechanical equipment. Its main function is to support the mechanical rotating body, reduce the friction coefficient and ensure the rotation accuracy. It is the product of mathematical physics and other theories plus materials science, heat treatment technology, precision machining and numerical control technology. Regardless of aircraft, automobile, high-speed rail or high-precision machine tools, all rotating parts generally require bearings.

When other mechanical parts move relative to each other on the shaft, the mechanical parts used to maintain the central position of the shaft and control the movement are called bearings. It can be used for the mutual rotation of the rotating shaft to minimize the friction force generated when the rotating shaft rotates.

The difficulty of manufacturing high-end bearings

The Difficulty Of Manufacturing High-End Bearings -PTJ CNC MACHINING Shop

01 In the early linear motion bearings, a row of wooden poles was placed under a skid. 

This technique can be traced back to the time when the pyramid of Kafra was built, although there is no clear evidence yet. Modern linear motion bearings use the same principle of operation, but use rollers instead of rollers.

From heavy-duty wheel shafts and machine tool spindles to precision clock parts, rotary bearings are required in many applications. The simplest rotary bearing is a sleeve bearing. This design was subsequently replaced by rolling bearings, which used many cylindrical rollers to replace the original bushings. The earliest rolling bearing was invented by watchmaker John Harrison in 1760 to make the H3 timer.

An early example of ball bearings was found on an ancient Roman ship on Lake Naimi, Italy. A wooden ball bearing was used to support the rotating table. The ship was built in 40 BC. Among the immature factors of ball bearings, it is very important that the balls will collide, causing additional friction.

The first patent on the bearing ball channel was obtained by Philip Vaughn in 1794. In 1883, Friedrich Fisher proposed the use of suitable production machines to grind steel balls of the same size and accurate roundness, which laid the foundation for the creation of the bearing industry. In 1907, Sven Winquist of the SKF ball bearing factory designed the earliest modern self-aligning ball bearing.

According to the contact form of relative motion, bearings are divided into: ball bearings, needle bearings, tapered roller bearings, sliding bearings, flexible bearings, air bearings, magnetic suspension bearings, jewel bearings and oil-containing bearings.

02Although the structure of the bearing is simple

Many small workshops can make it, but the bearing has a high technical content, and it can even be used as an important standard to measure the national scientific and technological strength. Today’s world powers of science and technology, without exception, are powers of bearing R & D and manufacturing.

More than 70% of the world’s bearing market is occupied by the top ten multinational bearing group companies, of which the United States accounts for 23%, the European Union accounts for 21%, and Japan accounts for 19%. The world bearing market is basically dominated by five companies such as NSK in Japan, two companies including SKF in Sweden, FAG in Germany, and several companies such as Timken in the United States.

At the same time, the high-end market of the world’s bearing industry is monopolized by the aforementioned companies, while the low-end market is mainly concentrated in China. The 10 largest bearing companies in China, such as tile shafts, accounted for only 24.7% of the industry’s sales, and the top 30 production concentration was only 37.4%.

In recent years, China’s bearing industry has formed a set of independent and complete industrial systems. Regardless of bearing output or bearing sales, China has entered the ranks of the major bearing industry countries and ranks third in the world. The data shows that in 2017, the main business income of enterprises above designated size in China’s bearing industry was 178.8 billion yuan, and the bearing output was 21 billion sets. It can produce bearings ranging from 0.6 mm in inner diameter to 11 m in outer diameter, with a total of more than 90,000 specifications.

From 2006 to 2017, the growth of China’s bearing export value was relatively stable, and the growth rate was higher than that of imports. The import and export trade surplus showed an increasing trend. In 2017, the trade surplus reached 1.55 billion US dollars. Compared with the unit price of import and export bearings, the price difference between China’s import and export bearings has been relatively large in recent years, but the price difference has been decreasing year by year, reflecting that although the technical content of China’s bearing industry still has a certain gap with the advanced level, it is still catching up. At the same time, it reflects the current situation of overcapacity of low-end bearings and insufficient high-end bearings in China.

At present, the design and manufacturing technology of domestic bearings is basically imitated, the product development ability is low, and it is even blank in the research and development of certain core technologies. Although the matching rate for domestic mainframes has reached 80%, the supporting and maintenance bearings for important mainframes such as high-speed railway passenger cars, mid-to-high-end cars, computers, air conditioners, and high-level rolling mills basically rely on imports.

The development of domestic bearing manufacturing technology and process equipment technology is slow, the numerical control rate of turning is low, and the level of grinding automation is low. There are only more than 200 automatic production lines in the country. Advanced heat treatment processes and equipment that are critical to bearing life and reliability, such as controlled atmosphere protection heating, double refinement, and bainite quenching, have low coverage, and many technical problems have not been overcome.

The research and development of new bearing steel grades, the improvement of steel quality, and the development of related technologies such as lubrication, cooling, cleaning and abrasive tools have not been able to meet the requirements of bearing product levels and quality improvement.

Taking the most common deep groove ball bearing as an example, the actual life of foreign advanced products is generally more than 8 times the calculated life, up to more than 30 times, and the reliability is more than 98%.

The life of domestic bearings is generally 3 to 5 times the calculated life, and the reliability is about 96%. The gap is still very significant. For ordinary sports machinery, the problem is not too big. However, it is difficult to accept in the high-end field, so domestic aviation bearings, high-speed rail bearings, robot bearings, etc. are basically mainly imported bearings.

03High-speed rail, large aircraft, heavy-duty weapons and other high-end equipment have high-end bearings

but to meet the requirements of high-end bearings in terms of accuracy, performance, life and reliability, the quality and reliability of bearing materials are decisive factor.

Due to the high-speed rotation of the object, various parts of the bearing are subject to variable stress and high frequency. Generally, the pressure per unit area is as high as 1500 to 5000N per square millimeter. Under these factors, the bearing is prone to stress fatigue, which can cause fatigue peeling The bearing loses its function, and at the same time, the rolling bearing also needs to withstand factors such as centrifugal force, friction, high temperature, corrosion, etc. This also makes it necessary to use good steel to make the bearing.

Among the four major components of rolling bearings, except the retainer, the inner, outer ring, and rolling elements (balls, rollers, or needles) are composed of bearing steel, and the bearing steel is known as the “king of steel” Is the most demanding steel grade in steel production.

The quality of bearing steel mainly depends on the following four factors: one is the content, morphology, distribution and size of inclusions in the steel; the second is the content, morphology, distribution and size of carbides in the steel; the third is the central looseness in the steel Hole and center segregation; Fourth, the consistency of bearing steel product performance. These four factors can be summarized as indicators of purity and uniformity.

Among them, the purity requires that the inclusions in the material be as little as possible, the quality of the purity has a direct impact on the fatigue life of the bearing; while the uniformity requires the inclusions and carbide particles in the material to be fine and dispersed, which will affect the bearing Deformation and uniformity of structure after heat treatment in manufacturing.

Our country’s shaft manufacturing process is close to the world’s top level, but the material-that is, high-end bearing steel is almost entirely imported.

“PPM” is a unit of oxygen content in steelmaking, meaning parts per million or parts per million. Generally speaking, in the steel industry, 8 PPM steels are good steels; 5 PPM steels are top-grade steels, which are exactly what high-end bearings need.

The R & D, manufacturing and sales of high-end bearing steels are basically monopolized by the world’s bearing giants US Timken and Sweden SKF. A few years ago, they established bases in Yantai, Shandong and Jinan respectively, purchased low-end materials from China, used their core technology to make high-end bearings, and sold them to the Chinese market at ten times the price.

The addition of rare earth in the steelmaking process can make the original high-quality steel more “strong”. But how to add, this is the core secret of the world’s bearing giants.

Recently, the material machining simulation research team of the Institute of Metal Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has discovered that impurities are the main source of uneven composition through the physical dissection and calculation of large 100-ton single steel ingots. The special addition of technology to steel breaks through the technical bottleneck of the industrial application of rare earth in steel, and realizes the process forward and stable performance after adding rare earth to steel.

Taking Japanese NSK bearings as an example, it began to develop and manufacture bearings from specializing in basic science, with tribological technology, material technology, mechatronics technology and analytical technology as the four core technologies.

It is precisely because of this unparalleled R & D spirit that NSK has evolved from a Japanese machining company into a world-class bearing giant.

Our country has been able to make good steel, the next thing to do is how to apply it to bearings. High-end bearings also involve technical difficulties in materials, design, high-precision machining, bearing manufacturing, and some interdisciplinary subjects such as fatigue and damage , Lubrication, etc., so there is still a certain gap between China and high-end bearing technology.

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What Is the Role of the Intake Manifold In an Engine?

In any engine, the intake system is of paramount importance as it deals with the engine performance including power and torque. It’s important for the combustion chambers to produce equal pressure to ensure the smooth operation of the engine cylinder. You can achieve this purpose if you send the same level of charge to the cylinders. Apart from this, the physical properties, quality, and the charge air-fuel ratio must be the same. Read on to find out more.

Function

The role of the carburetor is to feed the air-fuel mixture to the combustion chamber. The intake manifold sends an equal amount of air-fuel mixture to each cylinder. The valve timing has to be correct at the same time.

Every piston must compress the charge based on the compression ratio. If the ignition timing is correct, it will make sure the spark happens on time. In reality, since the intake manifold features different temperatures, flow rates, contours, angles and passage sizes, the charge may not be the same for all cylinders. You can experience the engine performance difference at low speeds.

Design

Usually, the intake manifold comprises aluminum or cast iron tube. Toda’s manifolds may be chrome-plated or powder-coated. Also, the carburetor is mounted in the center of the intake manifold. It’s designed in a way that the air-fuel mixture can go into the engine cylinders without any problem. The carburetor is fixed on the inlet manifold, which is fixed on the block based on the design.

Today’s intake manifolds help vaporize the gasoline in the air-fuel mixture. Also, the engine cooling system and outgoing exhaust gases are responsible for providing heat. Apart from this, the thermostat valves control the amount of heat.

The Layout of the System

Single Pipe:

Single passage intake manifold features a single pipe that makes a connection between the engine cylinders and the carburetor. But a double flange manifold features a pair of separate pipes for the cylinders. Therefore, if you have a four-cylinder engine, there will be four passages that merge into a single pipe that goes to the carburetor.

Duel Pipe:

Typically, duel intake manifolds have two pipes and two carburetors, and each pipe feeds 50% of what the engine needs. The idea is to prevent the stroke from overlapping in the manifold. So, it may help improve the uniformity of the air-fuel mixture distribution.

Quad:

Also, some modern vehicle engines come with a four-pipe design. If there is an intake manifold with a four-pipe design, the first and second outlets go to cylinders at a certain order, which is 2, 3, 5, and 8. On the other hand, the other pipes go to cylinders at an order of 1, 4, 6, and 7.

Long story short, this was a brief introduction to the role of intake manifold in a vehicle engine. If you want to know more about it, you can do your homework and you will have a much better understanding of the entire engine system.

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Requirements of CNC machine tools for spindle drive system

The main shaft drive system is also called the main drive system, which is the part of the power unit that completes the main movement in the system. The spindle drive system is transformed into the cutting torque and cutting speed of the tool or workpiece installed on the spindle through the transmission mechanism, and cooperates with the feed movement to process ideal parts. It is one of the forming motions of parts processing, and its accuracy has a great influence on the processing accuracy of parts.

The spindle drive system of a cnc machine tool is also the main drive system. Its performance directly determines the surface quality of the processed workpiece. Therefore, the spindle drive system is very important in the repair and maintenance of the cnc machine tool.

There is a big difference between the spindle drive and the feed drive of the machine tool. The working motion of the machine tool spindle is usually a rotary motion, unlike the feed drive that requires a lead screw or other linear motion device for reciprocating motion. CNC machine tools usually realize the rapid relative cutting movement of the tool and the workpiece through the rotation of the main shaft and the feed of the feed axis. In the 1960s and 1970s, the spindle of CNC machine tools generally used a three-phase induction motor coupled with a multi-stage gear box to achieve a step-by-step speed change drive. With the continuous development of tool technology, production technology, processing technology and production efficiency, the above-mentioned traditional spindle drive can no longer meet the needs of production. Modern CNC machine tools put forward higher requirements for spindle transmission:

(1) Wide range of speed regulation and stepless speed regulation

In order to ensure that the appropriate cutting amount is selected during processing, to obtain the best productivity, processing accuracy and surface quality. Especially for Cnc Machining centers with automatic tool change function, in order to meet the processing requirements of various tools, procedures and various materials, the speed range of the spindle is required to be higher, and the spindle is required to be able to operate in a wide range of speed according to the CNC system The command automatically realizes stepless speed regulation, reduces intermediate transmission links, and simplifies the spindle box.

At present, the constant torque speed adjustment range of the spindle drive device can reach 1:100, and the constant power speed adjustment range can also reach 1:30. Generally, it can work continuously for 30 minutes when the overload is 1.5 times.

The spindle speed change is divided into three forms: stepwise speed change, stepless speed change and segmented stepless speed change. The stepped speed change is only used for economical CNC machine tools. Most CNC machine tools adopt stepless speed change or stepless speed change. In the stepless speed change, the frequency conversion speed control spindle is generally used for popular CNC machine tools, and the AC servo spindle is used for medium and high-end CNC machine tools.

(2) The constant power range should be wide

The spindle can provide the power required for cutting in the full speed range, and provide the maximum power of the spindle motor as much as possible in the full speed range. Due to the limitation of the spindle motor and the driving device, the spindle has a constant torque output in the low speed section. In order to meet the needs of low-speed and powerful cutting of CNC machine tools, the stepless variable speed method is often used (that is, the mechanical deceleration device is used in the low-speed section) to expand the output torque.

(3) With 4 quadrant drive capability

It is required that the spindle can perform automatic acceleration and deceleration control when it rotates in the forward and reverse directions, and the acceleration and deceleration time should be short. At present, the general servo spindle can accelerate from standstill to 6000r/min within 1 second.

(4) Possess position control ability

That is, the feed function (C axis function) and the orientation function (exact stop function) to meet the needs of certain machining processes of the machining center for automatic tool change, rigid tapping, thread cutting, and turning centers.

(5) It has high precision and rigidity, stable transmission and low noise.

The improvement of the machining accuracy of CNC machine tools is closely related to the accuracy of the spindle system. In order to improve the manufacturing precision and rigidity of the transmission parts, the gear tooth surface should adopt high-frequency induction heating and quenching process when adopting gear transmission to increase the wear resistance. The last stage is generally driven by helical gears to make the transmission stable. Toothed belts should be used when belt transmission is used. High-precision bearings and reasonable support spans should be used to improve the rigidity of the spindle components. If the structure permits, the width of the gear should be appropriately increased to increase the overlap coefficient of the gear. Variable speed sliding gears are generally driven by splines and centered by inner diameters. The side-centered spline is more beneficial to reduce noise, because this centering method has a small transmission gap and a large contact surface, but the processing requires a special tool and a spline grinder.

(6) Good vibration resistance and thermal stability.

When CNC machine tools are processed, impact and alternating forces may be caused by continuous cutting, uneven machining allowance, unbalanced moving parts, and natural vibration during cutting, which will cause the spindle to vibrate and affect the machining accuracy and surface roughness. In severe cases, it may even damage the tool and parts in the spindle system, making it impossible to work. The heating of the spindle system causes thermal deformation of the components, which reduces the transmission efficiency, affects the relative position accuracy and movement accuracy between the components, and causes machining errors. Therefore, the main shaft assembly must have a higher natural frequency, better dynamic balance, and maintain a proper fit clearance, and cycle lubrication.

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