Analysis of the internationally popular valve procurement work forms
Twenty years of reform and opening up, my country’s economy has developed rapidly, and international exchanges and cooperation in the field of engineering construction are also increasing. The construction form of general contracting by engineering companies is emerging in my country and starting to go abroad. This requires us to understand as soon as possible. , The use of many internationally accepted working methods, valve procurement is one of them. We have participated in international bidding many times in recent years and have undertaken several foreign engineering contracting projects. Several years of practice has given us a preliminary understanding of the internationally accepted valve procurement methods. Let’s discuss our experience in these aspects with you. The purpose is to make everyone understand the basic requirements and basic content of this method so that you can In the future work, the two parties can cooperate tacitly and accelerate the pace of entering the international market. 1. The importance of valves in chemical installations Valves are one of the important components of chemical pipelines. They are piping components that must be installed to meet process requirements and ensure safe and smooth production. It is used to switch the fluid in the pipeline, adjust the flow or pressure of the pipeline, control the flow of the medium in the pipeline, and protect the safety of the pipeline or equipment. Chemical valves have four characteristics: 1) There are many types, specifications, and types; 2) The working conditions are complex and harsh; 3) Its own structure is complicated, technical requirements are high, and manufacturing is difficult, so it is called small equipment; 4) The position is important but it is the weakest link in the pipeline equipment. These characteristics make design selection, material selection and manufacturing very difficult. Therefore, whether the valve selection (including type, material, form, etc.) is appropriate, and the quality of valve manufacturing will directly affect the operation of the device, and even endanger the factory and operators. Safety of life. In addition, in various chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas installations, pipeline material costs account for approximately 15% to 20% of the total project investment, and valves account for 40% to 50% of pipeline material costs. Therefore, no matter from the use point of view or from the economic point of view, the selection and procurement of valves will inevitably be highly valued by investors or contractors. 2. Valve quality issues and supply and demand situation As mentioned above, the importance of valve quality to chemical plants is self-evident. Regarding quality issues, the following briefly introduces a set of data: According to the analysis of the causes of 200 pressure pipeline accidents by the Ministry of Labor (1996): pipeline problems 32.6% direct quality problems of pipeline components 27.3% corrosion 11% design problems .6%
This instrument is only an analysis of 200 pipeline accidents. In fact, some of the quality problems have been corrected during the inspection before installation. It is estimated that the direct quality problems of piping components account for about 1/3, which shows that the quality level of piping components, including valves, still needs to be high. In 1998, Chinese economists announced a surplus of 100% of the domestic market. The news program in 1999 also reported that the survey showed that 99.9% of products had a balance between supply and demand or oversupply, which showed that my country has completely entered the buyer’s market, and the valve industry is no exception. In this form, product sales can only be based on *: First, the product must be of high quality and reasonable price; second, the pre-sales and after-sales service must be high-quality, and the bidding process must be fast and accurate , In accordance with the requirements of the purchaser (or inquiry party), there should be related issues or documents. Among them, the first point is dead, whether you have excellent technology, whether the valve is well done, that is, hardware: and the second point is live, whether the technical documents are standardized, that is, the software, the latter second point is often Ignore, “It’s okay to know our products.” If you have such a view or stay at this level, you will suffer a loss in participating in international competition. 3. The internationally accepted way of valve procurement 3. 1 Regarding the “MR” file. The English name of the “MR” document is “Material Requistion”, which is the material requirement. Generally, the “MR” document includes two parts: “MR” document ① Purchase material list “Material Requistion” ② Material supply regulations “Material Requistion fordetailed supply of valve” If there is a material supply regulation in the text of “MR” in the bidding document, the valve manufacturer must carefully study the very specific requirements for the valve in this document. Generally speaking, this “MR” document is prepared by the purchaser (such as our Huanqiu Company) in accordance with the requirements in the bidding document and the actual situation of the project, and sent to the valve manufacturer. This text document is for the purchase order Supplement to the technical requirements of the above items. 3. 2 The general practices of engineering companies in international bidding Our engineering companies generally design, purchase, and construct projects (projects) according to the requirements of the tender documents, and have already quoted the three aspects. Actually, we are also the seller in international bidding. After we understand the requirements of the bidder, we must send an inquiry to the valve supplier (that is, the valve factory) according to the requirements of the bid. Generally, there are the following situations: The material supply regulations in “MR” text, the description of the valve in the purchase material list is relatively simple, only some basic requirements such as: gate valve 1/2″, 1501B, Flang —RF, WCB/13Cr, APl602, etc. The grade, connection method and manufacturing standard are listed. In this case, you can quote according to the requirements on the purchase material list.
2) Get the initial quotation and get the purchase material list (same as the simple quotation) and a “MR” text file of the material supply regulations, and provide the quotation against our products and upload the official product samples of the relevant factory (in Chinese and English) And the information required in the “MR” document. 3) Detailed quotation After getting the purchase order (same as the simple quotation) and a copy of the material supply requirements of the “MR” document text, study the material supply requirements of the “MR” document text in detail, except for the above two requirements In addition to the documents, the “differences” between the products that the factory can provide and the purchaser’s requirements must also be listed. These “differences” shall be negotiated with the purchaser in a timely manner to reach a consensus in order to make a detailed quotation smoothly.
4. The difference between the traditional quotation and the internationally accepted quotation 4. 1 Quotation by model According to the past method, our China Huanqiu Chemical Engineering Company also writes the valve on the bill of material on the mechanical (JB) standard valve model. The valve factory provides products according to this standard, such as Z 6 1 H 2 5, J4 1 H 2 5, etc., is the traditional way of saving trouble, that is, no matter what: the model of the engineering valve is certain, nothing can be changed. It’s like going to a restaurant to have a table, only talking about how much a table costs, how many dishes, as large as what it has, and what dishes are actually served. It is decided by the restaurant, it is impossible to all taste. In the past, it was often said that domestic valves have short lifespan. Apart from manufacturing reasons, they have a relationship with supply. For example: designers have to choose a certain valve. Other parts may meet the requirements. Only the valve material is not suitable. The solution is difficult, because the valve is selected by the model, and the materials are fixed and matched, so I had to reluctantly use it. As a result, due to the problem of the valve seat, it was quickly damaged and the valve leaked or was scrapped. This kind of procurement method is no longer feasible in the world, because the buyer only provides various parameter requirements and manufacturing standards of the valve, and you (the valve manufacturer’s person) determine whether the valves in your factory meet its technical requirements in all aspects. . It’s like ordering food from a restaurant. From this perspective, the higher demands on sales staff are at least not a matter of just copying the price against the model. For the manufacturer, if your product (including the product manual) is still there In the Ministry of Machinery (j13) standards, they cannot participate in the international bidding competition. For example, the valve ruler
Our country has successively issued some national standards related to valves, for example: GB/T12252-89 passes valve supply requirements, GB/T13927-92 passes valve pressure test, etc. Some of these standards are based on or equivalent to international standards IS0 Some standards are compiled by themselves, and they are neither equivalent nor equivalent. They are still quite different from some foreign standards. The inspection standards are not the same. In this way, there are certain problems with direct international bidding. It can only be used when the other party recognizes my country’s GB standards. However, since the impact of my country’s standards in the world is still small, it is necessary for international bidding. Adopting the GB standard is difficult. 4. 3 Provide quotations according to American API standards, German DIN, and British BS standards. With the progress of reform and opening up, our country has introduced many large and medium-sized chemical plants over the years. Most of these imported equipment adopt European and American technology. Most of them adopt American ASTM, API standards, German DIN standards, British BS standards, etc. At present, there are quite a number of valve factories in China that can produce valves of these corresponding standards. This is also the result of continuous introduction of new technologies as the market needs. According to our cooperation with various valve factories in the past few years, we feel that although some factories can meet production needs in terms of hardware and basically meet the requirements of international bidding in terms of product quality and inspection standards, there are still some deficiencies in software, such as The preparation of documents and materials is lagging behind, and the quality is poor. There is also a big gap in drawing drawings with computers.
5. The requirements of the internationally accepted procurement methods for suppliers. We have already understood the internationally accepted procurement methods. For suppliers, the procurement process should run through. From bidding, technical preparation after winning the bid to production inspection, packing, delivery, inspection, etc. 5. 1 Bidding From the perspective of quotation, after receiving the inquiry, you should actively prepare for the response from two aspects, that is, the preparation of the quotation of the purchase material list and the preparation of the sample data, and the timely and accurate report. And track the project. Since it is a quotation, there is a possibility of winning and not winning the bid. You cannot ignore it just because you have not won the bid and stop actively cooperating with the purchaser (or the inquiring party). Because once we find your quotation, it means that we are a fixed partnership on this project. We can neither ask for excessive prices nor be irresponsible. For those valves that our factory cannot produce or technically fail to meet the procurement requirements, we must not In order to win the business, all agreed, asking for truth from facts, and in terms of technology, we must fully communicate with the purchaser in accordance with internationally accepted principles in order to implement it in production. Once supplied and combined
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