Principle of four-column hydraulic press reciprocating pump

The four-column hydraulic reciprocating pump is a kind of fluid machinery that changes the internal volume of the working chamber by moving the components (piston, plunger, diaphragm, bellows, etc.) in the working chamber to change the volume of the working chamber, so that the conveyed fluid is discharged at a certain flow rate. The energy for the components to move toward the reset comes from various prime movers. The inlet and outlet of the working chamber and the parts communicating with the atmosphere are controlled by isolation elements.

Four-column hydraulic reciprocating pump is usually composed of two basic parts, one end is the part that converts mechanical energy into pressure energy and directly transports liquid, called the hydraulic cylinder part or the hydraulic end; the other end is the power and transmission part, called the transmission end. The hydraulic end of the reciprocating pump is composed of piston (or plunger), cylinder (pump cylinder), suction valve, discharge valve stuffing box and cylinder head. The transmission end is mainly composed of crankshaft, connecting rod, crosshead, bearing and frame. The reciprocating pump uses the reciprocating movement of the reciprocating parts in the cylinder to periodically change the working volume of the closed liquid cylinder, and periodically suck the liquid into the working chamber through the suction liquid check valve, and reciprocate in the closed state The displacement of the moving parts transfers the energy of the prime mover to the delivered liquid, and directly increases the pressure of the delivered liquid. After reaching the required pressure value, it is discharged to the output pipeline of the pump through the liquid discharge check valve. Repeat the above process to complete the delivery of liquid.

The working process of the reciprocating pump includes two processes of alternating suction and discharge. The moment the piston moves to the right from the leftmost position (external dead center), the discharge valve closes, the suction valve opens, and the working chamber volume (the shaded part in the figure) ) Increases as the piston moves to the right, and the liquid in the suction container enters the working chamber under the action of the suction liquid surface pressure until the piston moves to the rightmost position (inner dead center), and the suction process ends. At the moment when the piston starts to move to the left from the inner dead center, the suction valve is closed and the discharge valve is opened. The volume of the working chamber decreases as the piston moves to the left. The liquid in the chamber is discharged under the pressure of the piston until the piston moves. At the outer dead point, the discharge process ends, and then another inhalation process begins. The piston reciprocates one work at a time. The liquid pressure in the working chamber remains constant during the entire suction process, which is equal to the suction pressure buckle. At the moment when the discharge starts, it suddenly increases to the discharge pressure and remains unchanged throughout the discharge process. Until the moment when the inhalation starts, it drops to Ps again.

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