This article will take you to understand the technology and development history of hydrogen internal combustion engine
“The basic principle of a hydrogen internal combustion engine is the same as that of an ordinary gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine. It is a basic cylinder-piston internal combustion engine, which is also in accordance with the four strokes of suction-compression-work-exhaust To complete the conversion of chemical energy to mechanical energy, but the fuel in the hydrogen internal combustion engine is hydrogen.
The basic principle of a hydrogen internal combustion engine is the same as that of an ordinary gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine. It is a basic cylinder-piston internal combustion engine, which is also in accordance with the four strokes of suction-compression-work-exhaust To complete the conversion of chemical energy to mechanical energy, but the fuel in the hydrogen internal combustion engine is hydrogen.
At present, the hydrogen internal combustion engine is very mature from a technical point of view. The international use of hydrogen fuel for internal combustion engines is mainly based on the following aspects: First, the internal combustion engine still has great development potential after more than 100 years of development. The cost of a fuel internal combustion engine is only about 15% higher than that of a conventional gasoline engine, which is much lower than that of a fuel cell. , The mixed fuel of hydrogen and other fuels is an important way to reduce dependence on oil at present; thirdly, hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines have no greenhouse gas carbon dioxide emissions, no CO, HC and soot emissions; fourthly, hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines do not require heat engines, There is no cold start problem and good fuel economy.
However, hydrogen internal combustion engines are prone to premature combustion, flashback, rough work and high NOx emissions, and compared with fuel cells, which can directly convert chemical energy into electrical energy, their energy conversion efficiency is low, which limits the further promotion of hydrogen internal combustion engines application.
As early as 1920, hydrogen as a fuel was tested in engines, but little progress was made. In 1968, the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the Siberian Branch of the former Soviet Academy of Sciences conducted a test of fueling gasoline and hydrogen respectively with automobile engines, and studied the structural scheme of switching to liquid hydrogen. The test was successful. After switching to hydrogen, the thermal efficiency of the engine improved. , the heat load is reduced. In 1972, the Los Alamos laboratory changed a Buick brand car into a liquid hydrogen vehicle. The engine was a supercharged six-cylinder four-stroke internal combustion engine, and it traveled 274km after being charged with liquid hydrogen once.
At the beginning of this century, foreign car manufacturers have already announced that they have successfully developed hydrogen engine cars. BMW began to develop hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine vehicles in 1978, and developed 6 generations of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine-driven cars through the transformation of diesel/gasoline engines. BMW conducted research trials on the BMW 735i sedan, equipped with a 3.5L six-cylinder spark-ignition engine fueled by hydrogen. Hydrogen is stored in liquid state, and the car can travel 299km each time it is refueled. The car retains the original gasoline injection system and can choose to work with gasoline or hydrogen fuel. The hydrogen uses multi-point injection to prevent backfire and further improve efficiency. In September 2004, the BMW Group set nine speed records in Miramas, France, with a car powered by a hydrogen internal combustion engine called the H2R. In 2006, Mazda developed and launched the Mazda RX-8 hydrogen rotary engine, which produced almost no NOx, and produced a test vehicle with the RX-8 as the engine. Ford also put the hydrogen engine H2ICE into the market at about the same time, and equipped the engine with the E-450 passenger car produced by Ford. In 2007, Ford’s hydrogen fuel V-10 engine was officially put into production, and Ford Motor Company became the world’s first car manufacturer to officially produce hydrogen fuel engines. In April 2018, ULEMCo, a UK-based Liverpool company, and Innovate UK cooperated to successfully convert the Volvo FH16 truck into a hydrogen internal combustion engine truck, enabling the truck to have an actual cruising range of about 180 miles with zero emissions.
The research on hydrogen engines in my country began in the early 1980s, and some domestic universities and research institutes conducted experimental research on internal combustion engines with hydrogen and hydrogen-burning dual-fuel internal combustion engines. Among them, Zhejiang University has cooperated with Japan’s Musashi Institute of Technology to conduct experimental research on liquid hydrogen engines. The test used direct injection in the cylinder and used fuzzy neural network control. The test results show that the abnormal combustion, power increase and NOx reduction of the hydrogen engine are greatly reduced. The extent depends on the correct hydrogen injection system, injection timing and ignition timing. In August 2006, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing Yimax Technology Co., Ltd. and Beijing Feichi Green Energy Power Technology Co., Ltd. jointly successfully transformed a 1.6L Elantra car that can use gasoline and hydrogen mixed fuel. The car uses pure hydrogen to run at cold start, warm-up, idle speed and small load, with close to zero emissions; at medium load, gasoline-hydrogen mixed combustion is used to further reduce emissions and fuel consumption; at high load, pure gasoline mode is used to ensure that the vehicle is in high-speed operation. Dynamics of the load. Beijing Institute of Technology is at the forefront of the research on hydrogen internal combustion engines in China. During the “Eleventh Five-Year Plan” period, it cooperated with Changan Automobile Group, undertook the 863 energy-saving and new energy vehicle major special projects of the National Defense Science and Technology Commission and the Ministry of Science and Technology, and carried out a number of hydrogen-related projects. A study of engine content. In June 2007, the first domestic hydrogen internal combustion engine jointly developed by Beijing Institute of Technology and Changan Group was successfully ignited in Changan Group. Then at the 2008 Beijing International Auto Show, Changan Automobile released China’s first hydrogen-powered concept sports car “Hydrogen Journey”. The “Hydrogen Journey” is equipped with the supercharged and intercooled hydrogen internal combustion engine just mentioned above. It directly uses compressed hydrogen as fuel. Its performance can not only reach the level of gasoline engines, but also its efficiency is more than 30% higher than that of gasoline engines of the same displacement. , HC, CO, CO2 emissions are almost zero, completely can achieve ultra-low emissions and has a good low temperature start-up, the cruising distance can reach more than 230Km in the case of one-time full fuel.
Since the hydrogen engine needs to burn hydrogen to obtain energy, the traditional high-pressure hydrogen storage can store limited hydrogen, while the liquefied hydrogen needs to be minus 200 ℃ or even lower, and the cost is too high. Solid hydrogen storage is a very promising technology, but At present, it is difficult to have breakthrough materials and progress in the short term. On December 3, 2018, Beijing Institute of Technology released the only set of dedicated test benches in China that can develop hydrogen fuel internal combustion engine systems on the national military-civilian integration public service platform.
In other fields of application, the latest progress of the hydrogen internal combustion engine is the successful development of the world’s first spark that can achieve high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions by a research and development team composed of Japan’s National Institute of Advanced Industrial Technology and Japan’s Okayama University, Tokyo Metropolitan University, and Waseda University. Ignition hydrogen fuel engine, the hydrogen fuel engine developed this time can be used as a large power generation engine and a marine engine. This work was carried out under the auspices of the Strategic Innovation Project (SIP) of the Cabinet Office of Japan. The first phase of the program has ended (2014-2018), and no further development plans and support for hydrogen engines have been found in the second phase of SIP2.